Citigold's geologists have continued to develop the new ...

 · mining reefs (C03W, C38, C39 and C05E) are shown in red. Horizontal level access tunnels (drives) are spaced at 20 metre vertical intervals in each reef. The existing gold processing plant may be upgraded to extract the gold faster using ultra-modern gravity recovery methods to allow for rapid increase in gold output without interruption.

The top ten deepest mines in the world

Kopanang Gold Mine. Operated by Harmony Gold Mining, Kopanang is located in the Vaal River region in the Free State province of South Africa. The mine extracts gold from the Vaal and Crystalkop reefs at depths ranging from 1,350m to 2,240m. Scattered mining comprising a single shaft system is used at Kopanang.

The Cornish Pumphouse – Waihi Gold

 · The pumps were needed to cope with the ever increasing quantities of water as the mine workings followed the gold-bearing quartz reefs to a final depth of 600 metres. Constructed by Hathorn-Davey, the horizontal Cornish pump was …

A Geometallurgical Study of the Witwatersrand Gold Ore …

Since the gold reefs are stacked over a considerable vertical interval due to their sedimentological history, mining activities commonly involve extraction from several horizons and

Citigold - Exploration | Citigold Corporation

Total gold production from trial mining and processing a small tonnage of tailings was 38,000 ounces of gold from 1998-2000. All ore was processed through the Black Jack processing plant. In 2006, The Company commenced underground production from the Imperial Mine (Warrior and Sons of Freedom reefs) about 5 km southeast of Charters Towers city ...

Driefontein Gold Mine - Gold Fields

Driefontein Gold Mine. Technical Short Form Report. Driefontein Gold Mine is a large, well-established shallow to ultra-deep level gold mine with workings that …

Mining by rock cutting in narrow reefs

 · Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 2006. Mining by rock cutting in narrow reefs R. PICKERING*, A. SMIT* and K. MOXHAM† *Sandvik †Lonmin Platinum Since the early 1970s research has been ongoing to develop a cost-effective way of continuously mining the narrow reef, hard rock, typical of South African gold and platinum mines.

Long hole drilling applied to narrow reef mining - SAIMM

 · A long hole mining system was then defined, with a corresponding face mining system, which led to the design of a test programme for the Solo drilling rig. Earlier experience at Telfer The proposed face mining system was based on a mining method that is practised at Telfer Gold Mine in Western Australia. Telfer has a series of domed reefs that ...

For personal use only - ASX

 · Mines in the 1990's to delineate additional ore to feed the main TGME processing plant. Many of the horizontal gold reefs are stacked vertically one above the other and multiple flat reefs illustrate potential to be accessed via low-cost, open cut mining. Two areas are of primary focus at present – the Theta Hill area which is the basis of this

Historical gold maps of the Victorian ... - …

 · How the frontage system changed gold mining at Ballaarat, includes map and notes. Mining district of Ballaarat, 1859. Shows reefs, leads, gullies, workings. Plan of Ballarat, Sebastopol and Buninyong gold field showing …

Major Mines & Projects | Charters Towers Mine

The gold-bearing reefs at Charters Towers are typically 0.3 metres to 1.5 metres thick, comprising hydrothermal quartz reefs in granite, tonalite and granodiorite host rocks. There are some 80 major reefs in and around Charters Towers city. The main east-west reef systems are the Brilliant, the Day Dawn, the Mexican, the Queen and the Sunburst ...

to mine horizontal gold reefs - anapa.in

to mine horizontal gold reefs; to mine horizontal gold reefs. Historically, horizontal tunnels were built to connect vertical shafts to the gold bearing reef, as the reef extended further underground at an angle. In deep mines, the main vertical shaft shifted several times to stay close to the reef. Get a Quote Online Message

(PDF) Gold-bearing reefs of the Witwatersrand …

The current concepts concerning the genesis of the unique ore-bearing reefs of the Witwatersrand Basin and its gold resource potential are considered.

Quartz Reef Mining, Mining Techniques, Surface Mining ...

 · Quartz Reef Mining. Primary gold typically happens in quartz veins. The removal of gold ore from these tough quartz veins was traditionally referred to as quartz reef mining. A Prussian engineer, Jacob Brache was the foremost to feel that quartz reefs may have even more gold than alluvial fields.

Gold Mining in Ghana - JSTOR

tical to horizontal, and duplication of the reefs due to strike faulting is a common feature. The development of modern mining in the Gold Coast can be divided into three periods: First Period, From 1880 to 1901 This was the pioneering period, one of high hopes and great endeavour, dogged by unrelieved tragedy of sickness and death from yellow ...

Structural controls on Witwatersrand gold mineralisation ...

 · 1.2.. Gold mineralisationMost of the gold in the Witwatersrand Basin is hosted by Central Rand Group conglomeratic layers of varying lithological character, parochially referred to as 'reefs' ().In most cases, the gold is intimately associated with a hydrocarbon (e.g. Parnell, 1996, Gray et al., 1998, England et al., 2001).This hydrocarbon is now a mesophase, formed …

Kopanang Mine - Village Main Reef

 · Current status. In March 2018, HSC acquired the Kopanang mine from AngloGold Ashanti. The mine operates at depths of 1,350 to 2,240 metres below surface and is accessed by one of the largest diameter shafts in South Africa. Around 3,000 people currently work at the mine, producing around 85,000 oz of gold annually.

Union Reefs North Underground Mine Assessment

 · The Proponent proposes to commence underground mining and on-site processing of gold ore at the Union Reefs Project Area (URPA), located about 175 km south-east of Darwin and 20 km north-west of Pine Creek. The URPA is an existing authorised mine site containing an active processing facility. It is a highly modified brownfield site that has

Beatrix Gold Mine - Gold Fields

Beatrix Gold Mine. The Beatrix Gold Mine consists of four surface operating shafts that mine various gold bearing reefs from open ground and pillars at depths between 600 and 2,155 m below surface. Ore is processed at two metallurgical plants with mill throughput of approximately 3.0 Mtpa to produce approximately 391 koz of gold.

GOLD - tandfonline.com

 · Proterozoic gold reefs and stockworks, resistivity INTRODUCTION The Telfer gold deposits are located 410 km east-southeastof Port Hedland in the southern part of the Great Sandy Desert in the Paterson Province of Western Australia. Mining commenced in 1977 and, up to the end of 1992, more than 104 t (3.34 million oz) of gold have been produced ...

Gold Project Inventory - Gold in Ironstone and Quartz Reef ...

The Mount Poole New Era Gold Mining Company started work on the various reefs at Mount Poole in 1891 and two test crushings yielded 32 gm. Au/tonne and 107 gm. Au/ tonne. Reefs tested were the Marvel and the New Era the latter varying in width between 0.38 m. and 1.07 m.

How to read historical gold maps - Goldfields …

 · A reef is a vein of quartz in the ground, often gold-bearing. Gold from reefs in the Victorian Goldfields can either be mined directly from the reef (by crushing the quartz and processing for gold) or from nearby areas where the …

vaal reefs gold mine disasters - brm2019.be

 · The Oppenheimer Stadium near the Vaal Reefs gold mine was packed for the funeral service for 45 of the 104 miners. They were all killed on 10 May in one of South Africa's worst mining disasters. A runaway mine locomotive fell onto an elevator car, sending it crashing to the bottom of a shaft. All aboard were killed.

A borehole radar system for South African gold and ...

 · The geometry of the reefs is very similar to that of the gold reefs: thin, gently dipping seams of very large horizontal extent. In the platinum environment the economically significant seatns are good geophysical targets: the chrotnitite has a large density and electrical property contrast to the surrounding rock types. The disadvantage

Quartz-Pebble-Conglomerate Gold Deposits - USGS

 · Quartz-pebble-conglomerate gold deposits represent the largest repository of gold on Earth, largely due to the depos-its of the Witwatersrand Basin, which account for nearly 40 percent of the total gold produced throughout Earth's history. This deposit type has had a controversial history in regards to genetic models.